The Diversity of Birds in Turkey is remarkable. Turkey is located at the crossroads of continents. The bird diversity in Turkey cannot be matched by any European country. Over 460 species, including 330 breeding birds can be seen. Turkey holds the stronghold of the world population of 20 species, such as the near-endemic Krueper’s Nuthatch, Armenian Gull, White-throated Robin, Finsch’s Wheatear and Crimson-winged Finch. Globally Threatened Species regularly occur and can be observed easily, such as Marbled Teal, Dalmatian Pelican, Lesser Kestrel, Greater Spotted Eagle and Sociable Plover.


The bird fauna in Turkey has many origins of distribution:

  • Humid European Forests: Ancient old-growth forests still remain in northern Turkey and hold healthy populations of Lesser Spotted Eagle, White-backed Woodpecker and Greenish Warbler.
  • Anatolian Steppe: Extensive treeless open landscape and alkaline shallow lakes provide home for Ruddy Shelduck, Lesser Kestrel, Bimaculated Lark and Isabelline Wheatear.
  • The Mediterranean Coast: Dry scrubby vegetation on the foothill of Taurus mountains is home to 6 semi-endemics: Olive-tree Warbler, Rueppell’s Warbler, Krueper’s Nuthatch, Masked Shrike, Cinereous and Cretzschmar’s Bunting.
  • Alpine Zone: Turkey’s high mountains are inhabited by Caspian Snowcock, Caucasian Grouse, Radde’s Accentor and Red-fronted Serin. Central Asian breeders: Demoiselle Crane, Sociable Plover and Black-winged Pratincole, are at home in the wet meadows and dry grassland of eastern Turkey.
  • Middle Eastern specialties: Cream-coloured Cursor, Pallid Scops Owl, Desert Lark and Iraq Babbler live in the arid pastures between the Euphrates and the Tigris.
  • Arrivals from Tropical Asia: Species from the Indian subcontinent, such as Brown Fish Owl, Red-wattled Plover, Smyrna Kingfisher and Black Francolin, reach their northwestern limit in Turkey.
  • Arrivals from Tropical Africa: Species from Africa, such as Spur-winged Plover, Laughing Dove, Little Swift, Pied Kingfisher and Graceful Prinia reach their northern limit in Turkey.